Home Education Kashmir University 2022 Entrance Syllabus Out Check Here Now

Kashmir University 2022 Entrance Syllabus Out Check Here Now

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Protista: General characters and classification up to classes; Locomotion in Protozoa
Porifera: General characters and classification up to classes; Canal System
Cnidaria: General characters and classification up to classes; Polymorphism in Hydrozoa
Helminthes: General characters and classification up to classes of platyhelminthes and nemathelminthes: Life history of
Taenia solium and Ascaris lumbricoides; Parasitic adaptations

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Kashmir University 2022 Entrance Syllabus Out Check Here Now

Kashmir University 2022 Entrance Syllabus Out Check Here Now

Annelida: General characters and classification up to classes; Filter feeding in Polycheats
Arthropoda: General characters & classification up to classes; Vision in Arthropoda, Metamorphosis in Insect
Mollusca: General characters and classification up to classes; Torsion in gastropods
Echinodermata: General characters and classification up to classes; Water-vascular system in Asteroidea

Urochordates: General features and classification; Phylogeny of Protochordata
Cephalochordates: General features and classification
Agnatha: General features of Agnatha and classification of cyclostomes up to classes
Pisces: General features and Classification up to orders; Osmoregulation

Amphibians: General features and Classification up to orders; Parental care
Reptiles: General features and Classification up to orders; Poisonous and non-poisonous snakes
Aves: General features and Classification up to orders; Flight adaptations
Mammals: General characters and Classification up to orders; Adaptive radiation

Integumentary System: Derivatives of integument;
Skeletal System, Evolution of visceral arches.
Digestive System: Brief account of alimentary canal and digestive glands.
Respiratory System: Brief account of Gills, lungs, air sacs and swim bladder

Circulatory System: Evolution of heart and aortic arches.
Urinogenital System: Evolution of kidney and urinogenital ducts.
Nervous System: Comparative account of brain
Sense Organs: Different types of receptors

Gametogenesis, fertilization in mammals Types and patterns of cleavage
Blastulation and gastrulation, Role of primary organisers
Extra embryonic membranes, Types of placenta
Basic processes in development (gene activation, determination, induction)
Basic processes in embryonic development (differentiation, intra cellular communications, cell movement and cell

Digestion: Physiology of digestion; Absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
Respiration: Pulmonary respiration, Respiratory volumes and capacities, Transport of Oxygen and carbon
dioxide in blood, types of respiratory pigments, oxygen dissociation curves
Excretion: Formation and excretion of nitrogenous wastes.

Origin and conduction of cardiac impulse
Different types of potentials, action potential and its propagation in different nerve fibres. Molecular and
chemical basis of muscle contraction. Physiology of vision
Physiology of hearing

Hormonal control of Gametogenesis
Hormonal control of reproductive cycles in mammals
Hormones of Pituitary, Thyroid and Parathyroid
Hormones of Pancreas, Adrenal and Thymus

Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Krebs-cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogen
metabolism, Electron transport chain;
Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis and β oxidation of palmitic acid.
Protein metabolism: Transamination, deamination and urea cycle
Enzymes: Introduction, Mechanism of action, Enzyme Kinetics, Inhibition and Regulation

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Mendalian genetics, Linkage, Linkage maps and crossing over; Nature of heterochromatin
Organisation of genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Multiple alleles, Lethality, Epistasis, Sex
linked inheritance, Extra chromosomal Inheritance

Mutations: Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes; Gene mutations
Replication: Replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Transcription and translation: Transcription and post transcriptional modifications, Translation
Sex Determination, Chromosomal mechanisms, Dosage compensation

Introduction to Evolutionary Theories; Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism
Evidences of Evolution; Types of fossils, Dating of fossils, Phylogeny of horse
Processes of Evolutionary Change; Organic variations; Isolating Mechanisms; Natural selection Industrial
melanism, Directional, Stabilizing and Disruptive selection, Artificial selection

Species Concept: Biological species concept; Modes of speciation (Allopatric, Sympatric)
Macro-evolution, Macro-evolutionaryl; Principles (example: Darwin’s Finches)
Extinction: Mass extinction, Causes and Role of extinction in evolution; Major extinctions, K-T extinction

Syllabus for M.Sc. Entrance in Botany 2022
M.Sc. Botany
Note: The syllabus prescribed for the entrance test has been divided into fifteen units. Each
unit carries a weightage of four marks. Paper setters are required to set four multiple
choice type questions with only one correct or most appropriate answer separately for
each unit, giving uniform representation to the whole syllabus contained therein.
Viruses: Discovery, general structure, replication, DNA virus (T-phage); lytic and lysogenic
cycle, RNA virus (TMV); Bacteria: General characteristics and cellstructure; reproduction –
vegetative, asexual and recombination (conjugation, transformation and transduction);
economic importance
Fungi: General characteristics, classification (Alexopolous, Mims & Blackwell), cell wall
composition, nutrition and reproduction; life cycle of Rhizopus (Zygomycota), Venturia
(Ascomycota), Agaricus (Basidiomycota). Fungi, bacteria, MLO’S and RLO’S. Major
diseases, disease symptoms and management practices in apple, pear and apricot.
Symptoms, causal organism, disease cycle and control of plant diseases: Late blight of
Potato, Paddy blast, Alternaria leaf blight of apple, bacterial blight of rice. Symbiotic
associations: Lichens and Mycorrhiza – general account and significance
General characteristics, classification of Algae (Round 1965), criteria for algal
classification; range of thallus organization; morphology, reproduction and life cycle of
Nostoc, Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium, Vaucheria, Ectocarpus, Batrachospermum;
economic importance of algae. Archegoniate – General characteristics, adaptations to land
Bryophytes – General characteristics, Proskauer’s classification (upto family); morphology,
anatomy and reproduction (excluding developmental details) of Marchantia and Funaria;
Evolution of sporophyte; apogamy and apospory; alternation of generation; economic
importance of bryophytes.
Pteridophytes – General characteristics; classification of Pteridophytes (Sporne 1965); Early
land plants (Rhynia); morphology, anatomy and reproduction (excluding developmental
details) of Selaginella, Equisetum and Dryopteris; heterospory and origin of seed habit;
evolution of stellar systems in pteridophytes. Gymnosperms – General characteristics,
classification – Christenhusz et al. 2011 (upto family); morphology, anatomy and
reproduction (excluding developmental details) of Cycas and Pinus; economic importance of
Introduction to Plant taxonomy; types of classification – artificial, natural and evolutionary;
classification systems – Bentham and Hooker (upto series), Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
(AGP) (upto order level). Numerical taxonomy – OTUs, character weighing and coding,
cluster analysis; phenograms and cladograms (definitions and differences).
Role of herbarium and botanical garden, important herbaria and botanical gardens of the
world and India; Flora, identification Keys: single-access and multi-access; taxonomic
evidences from cytology, phytochemistry and molecular data; taxonomic hierarchy – ranks,
categories and taxonomic groups; Botanical nomenclature – principles of ICN; binominal
system of nomenclature, typification, author citation, valid publication, principle of priority.
Meristematic and permanent tissues: Simple and Complex tissue (Types and Functions);
Organization of root and shoot apical meristem- Histogen theory; Tunica and corpus theory.
Plant organs: Structure of a typical dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf. Secondary growth
: Cambium- types, structure and function, Secondary growth in typical dicot root and stem
(Helianthus, Sunflower) ; General account of wood structure (Heart wood and Sap wood);
Adaptations: General structure and function of cuticle, epidermis and stomata; General
account of adaptations in xerophytes and hydrophytes.

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Structural organization of flower: Development and structure of anther and pollen; Structure
and types of ovules; Types of embryo sacs; Structure of a typical embryo sac. Pollination
and fertilization: Types of pollination –Floral modifications favoring self and cross
pollination; Double fertilization; Seed dispersal mechanism. Embryo and Endosperm:
Endosperm development, structure and functions; Structure and development of dicot and
monocot embryo (Capsella-bursa pestoris; maize). Apomixis and Embryogeny: Definition,
types and practical applications of apomixis and polyembryony.
10. Plant Water Relations: Water potential and its components; Transpiration and its
significance; Factors affecting transpiration; Ascent of Sap, Pressure flow model; Phloem
loading and unloading. Mineral nutrition: Essential elements, macro and micronutrients;
Criteria of essentiality of elements; Role of essential elements; Transport of ions across cell
membrane, active and passive transport. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic Pigments (Chl-a,
Chl-b, xanthophylls, carotene); light harvest complexes, Photosystem I and II, Electron
transport and mechanism of ATP synthesis; C3, C4 and CAM pathways of carbon fixation;
11. Respiration: Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, TCA cycle; Pentose Phosphate Pathway,
Electron Transport system and Oxidative phosphorylation. Enzymes: Structure,
Classification and properties; Mechanism of enzyme action and enzyme inhibition. Nitrogen
metabolism: concept of symbiotic and asymbiotic associations, Biological nitrogen fixation;
Nitrate and ammonia assimilation. Plant growth regulators: Discovery and physiological
roles of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA and ethylene. Plant response to light and
temperature: Photoperiodism (SDPs, LDPs, Day neutral plants); Phytochrome (discovery
and structure), red and far red light responses on photomorphogenesis; Vernalization.
12. Mendelian principles of inheritance; modified Mendelian ratios: 2:1- lethal Genes; 1:2:1-
Co- dominance, incomplete dominance; 9:7; 9:4:3; 13:3; 12:3:1 and 15:1. Multiple allelism
and pleiotropy.. Linkage: concept; complete & incomplete linkage, Bridges experiment.
Crossing over: concept and significance. Numerical and Structural changes in chromosomes.
13. The cell theory; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; structure and function of
biomembranes; fluid mosaic concept, Cell wall-structure and functions. Structure and
functions of ribosomes, centrioles, basal bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies,
lysosomes, peroxisomes and glyoxisomes, mitochondria, chloroplast and nucleus.
Euchromatin and heterochromatin; mitosis and meiosis; DNA- structure, types and
replication-Watson and Crick’s model, Griffith’s and Avery’s transformation experiments.
Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), Transcription and translation in prokaryotes, genetic
code. Gene regulation in Prokaryotes: Lac operon and Tryptophan operon.
14. Introduction to ecology; soil – origin, formation and composition, soil profile; water – states
of water in the environment, precipitation types; light and temperature as ecological factors;
adaptation of hydrophytes and xerophytes, Plant communities – characteristics; ecotone and
edge effect; succession – processes and types. Ecosystem: Structure; energy flow; trophic
organization; food chains and food webs; ecological pyramids, primary productivity;
biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and Phosphorous. Phytogeography –
biogeographical zones of India, concept of endemism.
15. Concept of centers of origin, crop domestication; importance of germplasm diversity.
Origin, morphology and uses of Wheat and Rice. Introduction, systematic position,
morphological features and uses of Crocus sativus and Curcuma domestica, extraction
methods of essential oils; systematic position and uses of Brassica and Coconut.
Classification of fibres (based on origin). Morphology, extraction & uses of Cotton.
Chemical constituents and uses of Saussurea costus and Papaver somniferum.

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Entrance Test Syllabus for Admission to M. Sc. Biochemistry
(Session 2021 onwards)
Note: The syllabus prescribed for the entrance test has been divided into fifteen units. Each unit
carries weightage of four marks. Paper setters are required to set four multiple choice type
questions with only one correct or most appropriate answer separately for each unit, giving uniform
representation to the whole syllabus contained therein.
Unit 1
· Chemical bonding
· Electron displacements: causes and consequences in chemical bonding
· Electronegativity
· Non-covalent interaction: hydrogen bond, van der waals force, hydrophobic and
hydrophilic interactions
· Isomerism: structural isomerism-chain, position and functional
isomerism Stereoisomerism-geometrical and optical isomerism
Unit 2
· Laws of thermodynamics and applications
· Concept of heat reaction, enthalpy
· Free energy
· Entropy and its change in physical processes
· Criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity
· Electrochemistry: electrolytes and their dissociation, types of electrodes, measurement
of EMF of a cell
· Acid base equilibrium
Unit 3
· Photosynthesis and its mechanism
· C3, C4 and CAM pathways of carbon fixation
· Photorespiration
· Importance of water in plant life
· Transpiration process
Unit 4
· Ecology and environmental conservation
· Air pollution, water pollution and their control
· Conservation and management of biological resources
· Nitrogen, phosphorous and carbon cycles
· Macro- and micronutrients-uptake and roles
· Metal toxicity
Unit 5
· Introduction to microbial systems
· Viruses – structure , transmission, diseases

Bacteria- morphology and their growth
· Host-parasite relationship
· Importance of microbiology in human health and environment
Unit 6
· Structure, classification, properties and
importance of: Carbohydrates
Unit 7
· Enzymes: classification and nomenclature
· Enzyme activity, factors affecting enzyme activity
· Enzyme kinetics
· Enzyme inhibition
· Enzyme regulation
· Mechanism of enzyme action
Unit 8
· Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis
· Glycogen synthesis and breakdown
· β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of fatty acids
· Transamination and deamination reactions, urea cycle
· Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines
Unit 9
· Morphology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
· Structure, composition and function of cell wall, plasma membrane, mitochondria,
plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, nucleus, lysosomes and ribosomes
· Cell cycle and its different stages
Unit 10
· DNA as genetic material
· Replication, transcription
· Genetic code, translation
· Chromosome structure, hereditary, linkage and recombination
· Mutations
Unit 11
· Spectroscopy: basic concepts and applications
· Chromatography: gel filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography
· Electrophoresis and its types
· Centrifugation: principle and its applications
· Immunological techniques: ELISA and RIA

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